AVMA Posts Melamine Study on Sheep in 1966

Melamine caused severe illness and death in sheep in this South African study. It’s safe to say that further testing is needed to determine how small amounts over time will affect pets and people alike.

With 10 g daily one sheep did not die but 2 did so after 16 and 31 days. The 2 sheep which died lost appetite and stopped urinating 3 days before death and urea and creatinine in blood then increased sharply. There were crystals in the kidneys and severe oedema of the lungs.

NOTE: South Africa’s pet food association is recommending the removal of all Chinese ingredients.

(Thanks Marilyn)

58 Responses to “AVMA Posts Melamine Study on Sheep in 1966”

  1. Debbie4747 says:

    Ok, let me get this thread going here!…Please note the source:

    Source:
    Clark, R. 1966. Melamine crystalluria in sheep. Journal South African Veterinary Medical Assoc., 1966, Vol. 37, pp. 349-351. CAB Record Number: 19671407708

    Please note the date was 1966. They’ve known what harm this crap can cause since then. I don’t get it, I really just don’t get it..now my head’s about to explode.

  2. Helen says:

    So let me see if I understand correctly:
    Melamine is lethal to cats, dogs, pigs, and sheep, but it is ok for humans to snack on daily. Hmmm. Nope, I don’t buy it. I say it is lethal to humans. FDA: TEST THE FOOD!!!!!!!

  3. Marilyn says:

    Notice that this study was published in the Journal *South African* Veterinary Medical Association.

    The South African government immediately blocked shipments of this junk when it was found to be contaminated with melamine. Coincidence??

    If any of you feel like writing letters, please go the forum titled Please Read This - A Call to Action. We have lots of addresses posted there for contacts within the Veterinary Community, here in the U.S. and Worldwide. Notice that the President of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association is from South Africa. The President of the World Veterinary Association is in Texas.

    This issue not only affects us here in the states, it is a global issue, so let’s go global too!

  4. Debbie4747 says:

    I forgot to mention…1966 that study was done…guess us hippies weren’t the only ones “dropping acid.”

  5. Eric says:

    With every passing moment this country and our government seems to trudge a little bit deeper into Hell.

  6. JLR says:

    Is anyone out there aware of any reports of severe hemorrhaging (I am sure I did not spell that correctly) related to any of these deaths in felines?

  7. 4lgdfriend says:

    wondering how much is 10 g daily compared to amount found at 6% ?

  8. 4lgdfriend says:

    my cat is sick again. trying to rule out other things…….but it’s suspicious since it began w nutro’s gd cglutmeal. so, fda$$e$, no longterm effects?

  9. Anonymous says:

    We the people have been skipping happily along like blind lemmings for years. There was a time when “imported” actually mean’t it was BETTER than US made. Our country of consumers long ago quit caring how the food was made as long as it was the cheapest on the block. As a country WE set ourselves up for a fall when we counted on the governing agencies to take care of us. Look where we are now. The FDA is actually the regulating agency to which all of the manufacuring companies have to
    listen to. The corruption is obvious, and most people have had the idea of this all along, but now it’s slapping us in the face. Now What?

  10. Anonymous says:

    By the way, has anyone read the back of many common purchases from ziploc bags to plasticware? Made in China.

  11. susanUnPC says:

    “NOTE: South Africa’s pet food association is recommending the removal of all Chinese ingredients.”

    I clicked on this link, and found the story very interesting — it’s great to see a no-baloney response from industry. No evasion, no denials. No hiding behind the skirts of the FDA. Just “we won’t buy that stuff anymore.” And they’ll compensate consumers. WTG, South African businesses.

  12. Marilyn says:

    And if South Africa can do it, why can’t we????

  13. susanUnPC says:

    So much for the bewilderment among toxicologists who can’t understand why melamine would hurt animals.

  14. susanUnPC says:

    (And, I meant to add, so much for the toxicologists who are maintaining that cyanuric acid is what is necessary to combine with melamine to kill animals. Now we know that melamine *alone* can kill.)

    Thanks, Marilyn, for sharing this with Itchmo, and us.

  15. Marilyn says:

    SusanUnPc, what was that link? I’d like to read the whole article. Thanks.

  16. Carol says:

    Has anyone emailed this story to the FDA??? It seems the people here at Itchmo are better investigators than they are–of course, we all want to find the answers to this nightmare–and have not minimized it

  17. Marilyn says:

    Well, and they keep talking about the only testing having been done on rats…

  18. Anonymous says:

    You want vitamins or taurine in your pet food, you’re getting stuff from China. We’ve sold our economy to the lowest bidder, and now we’re paying the price. It’s sickening, now it is literally sickening.

  19. Marilyn says:

    I don’t want to email it to their general email address because I think it would just get lost. I have snail mail addresses, but I don’t have any email addresses for the top people at the FDA. Does anyone have those?
    Thanks.

  20. xyz says:

    My only guess is because its rampant. Otherwise we’d see a lot more companies shouting about how safe and free of contaminants their products are- because they have quality control and USE IT. The again, the FDA felt the need to remind them they’re supposed to take care of food safety. Like that’s not something of a hint.

    Another question- where are the organic growers associations and organizations? Where are the big consumer advocates? Where’s AARP?

    This stopped being about pet food awhile back. Maybe they haven’t noticed.

  21. straybaby says:

    does anyone know how long they have been putting the c-acid in feed? it sounds like the Melamine in the sheep test was reacting the same way it does in the test tube causing crystals when introduced with the c-acid.

    otherwise, there’s an unsettling question of why the Melamine alone wasn’t forming crystals in the current lab testing . . . .

  22. purringfur says:

    susanUnPC Says:

    May 9th, 2007 at 5:19 pm
    (And, I meant to add, so much for the toxicologists who are maintaining that cyanuric acid is what is necessary to combine with melamine to kill animals. Now we know that melamine *alone* can kill.)
    ………………….
    Susan, you beat me to it. Thank you, AVMA for publishing the study abstract on your site.

    And, FDA:

    YOUR DOWNPLAYING OF THE RISKS of CONSUMING MELAMINE IS OVER AS OF THIS MINUTE. OVER!

    THE SHEEP THAT WERE FED MELAMINE IN THE STUDY DIED OF RENAL FAILURE AND OEDEMA OF THE LUNGS - AND THIS STUDY WAS PUBLISHED 41 YEARS AGO!

    And, by the way, the average adult male sheep weighs 150 - 200 pounds.

    OUR JOB? FORWARD THE SHEEP STUDY ABSTRACT TO THE MEDIA and POLITICIANS. Some heads should roll for the cover-up to the public.

    And now it’s time to give the other toxic substances their due time in front of the media: CYANURIC ACID, AMILORINE, & AMILORIDE, the words that have largely been avoided.

  23. Marilyn says:

    XYZ, all good questions. ConsumerAffairs.com has had some of the best coverage of this from the very beginning. But, for the most part, the powers that be have managed to keep this pretty low-key.

  24. anna says:

    I agree that melamine ALONE can cause kidney crystals, but one has to ask why these interlocked CEO ghouls decided to toss CYANURIC ACID into the mix. They wouldn’t have done that if there wasn’t a reason.
    CYANURIC acid is used to stabilized chlorinated water. I think they’re getting ready to punt off the next discovery that extremely contaminated water has been used to manufacture said pet food, water that contained chlorine and cyanuric acid.

    The FDA, like FEMA was NEVER set up to protect the people, it was set up to protect the powerbase and advance the Club of Rome agenda of an evil elite. I would start regarding the FDA as a sort of special arm of a latter-day Gestapo on steroids - then it makes sense why they don’t put forward a MORALLY SANE response, like banning imports from Bush-Shanghai (aka China).

    This is a warning to humans to get off the CORPORATE FOOD GRID now. Start by creating local marketing interfaces with your local farmers. Go into your local State Capitols, a dozen at a time, and demand bills to start planting wheat and corn or whatever grows by you. It is a money making opportunity and one that is win win win for the people. They’ll kill some of you for doing it, but that’ll happen anyway if we the people keep eating their Corporate Kibble.

  25. straybaby says:

    “And, by the way, the average adult male sheep weighs 150 - 200 pounds.”

    *steps on scale, looks. Yup, just what I thought. 105lbs*

    dogs that weigh more than I do have died . . .

  26. Gayle says:

    Here is a study which found that fish oil protected against the cancer-causing effects of melamine in rats. Might be worth trying in our pets as long as we don’t use fish oil from melamine-fed fish.
    http://tinyurl.com/38j6h7

  27. Katie says:

    And it was reported early on that it killed a 160 lb Great Dane!

    Katie

  28. Garyn says:

    I am not anything close to resembling a mathematician, metric converter or chemist so if I am wrong here, please let me know.

    If a standard size bag of wheat gluten (like the one supplied to Chem Nutra) is 25kg (25,000gms) and has 75% protein, it would have 18,750 grams of protein.

    If a standard size bag of wheat flour at the same weight (25kg) has only 14% protein, would it not follow that to bring it up to the 75% (to pull off the fake count) one would have to add 60% of fake protein (nitrogen rich melamine). If so wouldn’t that be 15,000 grams of melamine in one bag to bring it to a measured 75% protein count. I am assuming nitrogen count in melamine is used gram for gram to measure protein. They may have added even more melamine to bring the count above 75% to get a really good price. We don’t know.

    So each Kg out of the 25kg of the one bag of “wheat gluten” (really wheat flour) would contain 140 grams real protein and 600grams melamine.

    So if 110grams =1 cup, there would be 66 grams melamine in one cup of the flour. ½ cup would have 33 grams melamine. ¼ cup would have 16.5 grams melamine.

    How much non meat protein is in a can of dog or cat food? A can of cat food has approximately 12oz protein, whereas dog food has 8grams. So cats were getting more melamine than dogs. If we say that some brands of cat food had 1 gram of real meat protein, it would need 11 grams of vegetable protein to get to the 12 grams. So, if that was supplied by “wheat gluten”, the can would have 6.6grams of melamine (60%)

    Two sheep died after eating just 10grams of melamine per day after 16 and 31 days. Sheep fed 7gms a day mixed with meal didn’t die.

    Cats and dogs are much smaller than sheep. So are babies. If this stuff went directly into the human food supply (baby food, protein bars etc.) we are in such huge trouble. And if sheep died after 16 and 31 days on 10 grams, what do we think is going on inside a small chicken and even smaller fish who ate this wheat flour even with the stupid dilution factor.

    How’s my math?

  29. straybaby says:

    well according to the *formula* posted on the trade site, i think you can add less Melamine Compound becuase it packs a stronger protein punch than regular protein *if* i understand correctly.

    http://www.alibaba.com/manufac.....owder.html

  30. Gary says:

    The great U.S.A. has gone to the corrupt and criminals where killing is perfectly fine as long as they make money.

  31. Leslie k says:

    JLR-My brothers cat died in earl Dec 2006. No necropsy it was before the recalls. He was on a business trip for 4 days & a friend was feeding Lucifer for him. Always cuts & gravy wet & Pur dry for indoor cats. Doug got home Fri nite at 10 & Lucifer was acting a little off. He decided to wait til Sat am so he could see regular vet & Lucifer woke him about 2 am crying in pain. He didn’t make it to the emergency vet before Lucifer died . Severe bleeding ! If you have hemoraging go right away!

  32. Sylvia says:

    Wish I could KICK MYSELF IN THE REAR! I was eating Chinese farm-raised Tilapia fish!!! I don’t even buy farm-raised salmon because I know about the impurities in that. Since you don’t know NUTT’N about what goes on in China, being an optimist, I told myself that the Chinese probably have higher standards than we do. Ha, ha…I sure wish that melamine had a nasty taste or odor to give it away. The Tilapia was real tasty, thank you very much.

  33. straybaby says:

    Leslie k Says:

    I’d like to add, if you have a male cat that starts showing ANY sign of distress do NOT wait until the next morning or the next hour. they may be blocking on a Mela-Crystal. regular blockages only give you about 12-18 hrs before they become deadly.

    I have dealt with both ARF and stones in cats. BOTH need the earliest possible treatment. no messing around or waiting to see/etc.

  34. Susan says:

    That study was horrifying. In cats the BUN (or Urea as the study called it) level should be roughly from 3 to 25 or 30. If it’s over that they are headed to kidney failure. 50 is very bad. The highest I ever saw was in the 200’s. The vet said the cat was blocked with “struvite” crystals. I’m wondering because there is such an increase in these blockages over the past couple of years, if it’s Melamine. Vets don’t usually send bladder stones out for analysis and struvite crystals can start to form when a container of urine sits for as little as an hour. The study said the sheep BUN was over 300. How can they say Melamine studies don’t do any damage? I’d like to see the details of the rat study

  35. straybaby says:

    ” I’d like to see the details of the rat study”

    so would I, but seeing as they went on to test fish oil in regards to the Melamine reaction in their bodies . . . . ugh!

  36. Garyn says:

    Straybaby, yeah, I think you are right..assuming the b*&^$%d is being honest. But still it isn’t that far off from 1:1 if you take the low number. That is still a lot of melamine.

    “Levels for the melamine were as high as 6.6% of the wheat gluten, FDA’s Sundlof says.”
    http://www.usatoday.com/news/n.....call_N.htm

    Isn’t that interesting that he repeated that exact 6.6 number that I calculated to be in each can of cat food as grams (not percentages).

  37. Dogmom says:

    Oh my gosh! CBS news on now is broadcasting the fact that our high school students are being talk to speak Chinese!

  38. straybaby says:

    this is interesting if I read it right:

    “1. For poultry feed: adding 2. 0% is capable of increasing protein by 3. 2% -6. 0% .
    2. For cattle / sheep / pig / fish / shrimp feed: adding 3. 0% is capable of increasing protein by 4. 8% -9. 0% .
    3. For raw materials such as Fish Meal, Meat and Bone Meal, Bean Meal, Rice Protein Meal and other protein feed ingredients: adding 1kg of ESB Protein Powder per hundred kilos can improve protein by 1. 6% -3. 0% . ”

    fish meal and meat/bone meal have the chance for a double whammy. you feed the jacked feed, and then take those animals and make meal out of them, which you also jack with this crap . . .

    if anyone tells me my CA wines have Chinese ingredients in them, i swear my head will REALLY explode. it’s the only thing keeping my blood pressure down . . . along with walking the dog ;)

  39. Patty L says:

    Using several links, posted here and in Petconnection.com, I’ve seen the dark yellow crystals formed in the urine and kidney tissues and tubules of sick or dead cats and dogs and also saw the infrared spectra which show a perfect match between those crystals and those formed by the insoluble compound that results from mixing melamine and cyanuric acid. So I wonder if the sheep in that 1966 report died because of the metabolic formation of cyanuric acid from the melamine. (Though that idea is being disregarded now, and the theory that cyanuric acid was added to the melamine separately as a scam is popular in the last couple days.)

  40. straybaby says:

    “Levels for the melamine were as high as 6.6% of the wheat gluten, FDA’s Sundlof says.”

    but now that we know it was flour, does that change the percentage? is this based on what they *thought* the protein level of the ingredient was before the spike or the actual raw ingredient?

  41. Anonymous says:

    Marilyn - here are e-addys for FDA ’suits’ & others. I found this on Pet Connection blog of 5/9/07 for “Unusual Spikes …”, in: Comment by Joyce — May 9, 2007 @ 12:33 pm

    FDA
    Andrew C. von Eschenbach
    andrew.voneschenbach@fda.hhs.gov
    Dr. Stephen Sundlof
    stephen.sundlof@fda.hhs.gov
    Bernadette Dunham
    bernadette.dunham@fda.hhs.gov
    Daniel McChesney
    daniel.mcchesney@fda.hhs.gov
    David Acheson
    david.acheson@fda.hhs.gov
    Julie Zawisza
    julie.zawisza@fda.hhs.gov
    Captain David Elder
    david.elder@fda.hhs.gov
    Michael Rogers
    michael.rogers@fda.hhs.gov

    USDA
    Mike Johanns
    Mike.Johanns@usda.gov
    Kenneth Petersen
    Kenneth.Petersen@usda.gov

    USDA FSIS
    Lisa Willenda Picard
    lisawallenda.picard@fsis.usda.gov
    Janice Carpenter
    janice.carpenter@fsis.usda.gov
    Diane Van
    diane.van@fsis.usda.gov

    Pet Food Institute
    Duane Ekedahl FAX (202) 367-2120

    AAFCO
    Eric Nelson Fax: 608-224-4656
    eric.nelson@datcp.state.wi.us

    Pres. Bush FAX: 202-456-2461

  42. susanUnPC says:

    Marilyn, the story on the S.A. pet food businesses is linked in Itchmo’s story, in his “NOTE” item at the end.
    =====
    “I’d like to add, if you have a male cat that starts showing ANY sign of distress do NOT wait until the next morning or the next hour …”

    Great advice. The ASPCA goes even further in telling people that if their cats have eaten any of the recalled food — even if the cats *aren’t showing symptoms* — to immediately take the cat to the vet for testing. They think that when the cat begins showing symptoms, it may be too late.

  43. love gs dogs says:

    And the beat goes on..and on and on…

    Some days I think all of the wonderful comments and wisdoms and witicisms on this site are what keeps me sane..I was already depressed enough since Nov 2000 about the direction our government was going but lately, it is hard to imagine what it will take to dig out of this mess…

    I have a difficult time keeping up with all of the places to go on Itchmo and wondered if anyone else was keeping track of “teric” who sent away food from Kumpi and Canidae to be tested and thought addl results besides melamine would be back on Monday? anyone know if or where this information was posted?

  44. Mandy says:

    It’s going to be found out it was fed to the beef cattle next. Just you wait.

    Okay so the more you weigh the less chance you’ll get poisoned? Did I hear that right? So are you giving us an excuse to get fat?! That Great Dane who died weighs more than I do! I am a short person with only a medium bone structure. If I get TOO fat you’d have to roll me out the door! Thanks a lot!

    Though come to think of it, maybe this is why people are having trouble losing weight to begin with. How do you lose weight when what you’re eating shouldn’t be in the food?!

    Not only that but I have a lot of health problems and having to eat bad food? NOT HELPING!

    *Sings* Row, row, row, your boat, gently down the stream, throw FDA overboard and listen to them scream! AHHHHHHHHHH!

    Sorry I couldn’t resist.

  45. Nina says:

    OK…this may be the next thing coming.

    Just so you know, I grew up in Hong Kong (originally from Europe) and we ate “farm” chickens from the local wet market when I was a kid. After a few years we all started gaining weight (I got obese). We found out…much later…that it was because chickens were fed growth hormones. I’ve had life-long issues with weight and hormones since my childhood because of this, so I know about this issue PERSONALLY.

    U.S. proposal to allow chicken imports from China raises health concerns
    By Diedtra Henderson The Boston GlobePublished: May 9, 2007
    http://www.iht.com/articles/20.....hicken.php

    WASHINGTON: In China, some farmers try to maximize the output from their small plots by flooding produce with unapproved pesticides, pumping livestock with antibiotics banned in other countries and using human feces as fertilizer to increase soil productivity.

    But the questionable practices do not end there: Chicken pens are frequently suspended over ponds where seafood is raised, recycling chicken waste as a food source for seafood, according to a leading food safety expert who served as adviser to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    Suspect Chinese agricultural practices could soon affect consumers in the United States. Government authorities are working on a proposal to allow chickens raised, slaughtered, and cooked in China to be sold in the United States, and under current regulations, store labels do not have to indicate the origin of the poultry.

    According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, China’s top agricultural export goal is opening the U.S. market to its cooked chickens.

    Representative Rosa DeLauro, a Democrat of Connecticut who is fighting the change, says that China does not deserve entry to the coveted, closed poultry marke

  46. straybaby says:

    lol!~ Nina, I saw that the other night and just cracked up. It fits right in to the absurd landscape we find ourselves in . . .

    I will say what i saw was just a blurb on cable, not quite as detailed as what you posted . . . OY!

  47. Mandy says:

    You know Nina, though I am not seriously fat, I AM overweight for my height. Guess what one of my favorite foods used to be? CHICKEN! All I can say at this point is…

    Figures!

  48. Cathy says:

    Eric Says:

    May 9th, 2007 at 4:50 pm
    With every passing moment this country and our government seems to trudge a little bit deeper into Hell.

    Our country and government has already been in hell for quite a while now ;(

  49. Cathy says:

    Dogmom Says:

    May 9th, 2007 at 6:52 pm
    Oh my gosh! CBS news on now is broadcasting the fact that our high school students are being talk to speak Chinese!

    Nothing surprises me any more. Spanish is already becoming the language of the US, maybe Chinese will be next in line with English 3rd.

  50. purringfur says:

    Nina says: According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, China’s top agricultural export goal is opening the U.S. market to its cooked chickens.
    …………………

    Let your government officials know:

    WE DO NOT WANT CHINA TO ENTER INTO THE U.S. POULTRY MARKET.

    FOR THAT MATTER, WE DON’T EVEN WANT U.S. CHICKENS, at least not commercially-produced contaminated ones.

  51. Don says:

    According to this piece, the sheep tested in the article posted to the AVMA site weigh around 30 kg.

    http://jas.fass.org/cgi/conten.....72/12/3098

    The LD 50 for melamine is about 3 grams per kilogram in body weight. So, for a 30 kg sheep, you would
    expect half those fed 90 grams of melamine in a single dose to die. According to the AVMA posted
    study, sheep were given single doses of 100 grams, which killed them in about a week and a half.

    It should also be noted that every single sheep that died in this study, died as a result of total
    blockage of the kidneys. Basically, the kidneys were glued shut, the sheep were not able to eliminate
    urine, and were poisoned by their own bodily fluids.

    I have seen exactly one article, from an unknown source, claiming a pet death from complete blockage.
    Heavy drinking and matching increased urine out put are the symptoms we’ve been told over and over
    to expect in a food poisoning case. That is NOT what the sheep study shows. The sheep study indicates
    the exact opposite. What this study suggests is that as long as urine out put is normal enough to
    wash out the crystals, or the dosage is low enough not to completely block urine production,
    no long term effects are noted. That is also consistent with studies done on dogs, where the dogs
    received at least 5 times the highest amount of melamine reported to date in the pet food contamination,
    for a full year, with no ill effects.

    IMO, right now we need to be more worried about BS in our media, than melamine in our chicken. And,
    hey, speaking of South Africa, their media reported pet deaths from food contaminated with ethylene
    glycol in December, from ingredients from Europe, not China. I suppose it’s just a coincidence the
    FDA just recently added a warning about sweeteners contaminated with ethylene glycol, but, ya know,
    it’s not really a concern, ya know, it’s just something to think about, and ya know, it’s not really
    a problem, they’re just being overly cautions just in case - I mean, ya know, it’s better to be safe
    than sorry and all that.

    My guess is Menu Foods has known about the melamine for years, added some really poisonous stuff to
    food at their own plants late last year. They then let the really poisonous stuff get sold off the
    shelves to cover their backs, they gave massive doses of melamine to cats and dogs they later sent to
    labs for testing, and blamed the whole thing on melamine they knew was there all along, and while not
    good for the animals, no where near as toxic as it’s being played up to be.

  52. LorieVA says:

    Don,

    The part in the sheep study with the lack of urination fits with the symptoms my 2 cats had, neither of them were using the litter box hardly at all for any bodily functions. They also were not eating or drinking. Just gagging drooling and projectile vomiting

  53. Don says:

    Lorie,

    Thanks for the feedback. That still raises several issues though. 1. Those symptoms aren’t consistent
    with what we’ve been told to look for for 2 months. 2. The amount of melamine alleged to be in the
    food isn’t anywhere near the LD 50 level.

    Did you know that on an LD 50 basis (the single dose required to cause death in half those receiving
    the dose) melamine is slightly less toxic than table salt?

    According to the FDA, some gluten samples were as high as 6.6% melamine. The gluten content is evidently
    around 10%, so you have 10% of 6.6%, or 2/3rds of 1% total melamine in the food. In a 5.5 ounce can
    of food, you might have had as much as 1 gram on melamine in the food. The LD 50 for a 9 pound cat
    would be about 13 grams.

    This site has study information on melamine: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-.....a+Melamine

    In animal toxicity studies of melamine, dogs were given food mixed with melamine at 30,000 parts per
    million. So, one kilogram of dog food would have 30 grams of melamine. That works out to 11 grams of
    melamine in a 13 ounce can of dog food. The dogs were fed this mixture for a full year without ill
    effects. The LD 50 for a 55 pound dog would be about 75 grams. 11 grams works out to 1/14th the LD 50,
    which is comparable to the 1 gram for a 9 pound cat.

    Melamine shouldn’t be toxic at that level, and certainly nothing close to the level that would cause
    animals to drop dead in days as Menu Foods claims. As close as I can figure, that means one of three
    things, Menu was also spiking the food with non protein nitrogen substances such as melamine, there
    is at least one other toxin involved such as the aminopterin identified early on, or Menu intentionally
    loaded up the food dishes with massive quantities of melamine in order to produce the 16 touted
    melamine deaths.

    To make matters worse, pets do die of kidney disease from natural causes, and outdoor pets are exposed
    to any number of toxins and parasites. Assuming the bottom line is assigning liability to the outfit
    ultimately responsible for pet deaths, it is super important to positively identify what toxins were
    responsible. The real question is why now? If this stuff has been going into pet food for years,
    why was there a sudden spike in kidney failures over the past 5-6 months?

    We are a very long way from getting the whole truth. My view is we should avoid the melamine frenzy
    until we have some answers that rise above the level of hype intended to mislead the unwashed masses.

  54. Lorie says:

    Don,

    Not sure what was in the food that made them ill but it was definitely the food they are indoor cats and I have a cat proof house. No plants shoes off in the garage etc………………..

    FF will never tell the truth so I will never know what made my kids sick

  55. Don says:

    Lorie,

    I’d certainly agree with you that two indoor only cats suffering the same symptoms pretty well
    eliminates everything but the food. Hopefully you still have some of the food on hand and didn’t
    give in to the media and company pleas to return your evidence.

    I remain convinced the recall was not announced until after the cover up was fully in place, and the
    company was reasonably certain any toxic food that could be traced back to them had been sold out,
    consumed, or returned. It just isn’t possible to believe toxic food was on the market for over four
    months before anyone noticed something was wrong. Sheesh, Menu Foods claimed they accidently caught
    the problem in their regular quarterly taste tests at the end of February. So, what happened to the
    taste tests three months earlier when the poisoned food had already been on the market for over a
    month?

    In any case, I’m sorry for your loss. The one thing I hope this situation changes is the way our
    courts view liability for killing someone’s pet. We raise these guys from babies, play with them,
    teach them the house rules, bond with them, and come to cherish their unique personalities. If they
    are property, at the very least some consideration should be given for the time and money put into
    making them a property uniquely valuable to us, and the future loss of use of that uniquely valuable
    property. There must have been some pretty pathetic attorneys arguing past cases. Obviously pets are
    property, but they aren’t dime store toasters, they’re works of art uniquely valuable to those who
    own them. The vet bills people have racked up in this mess should prove that. If a pet was only worth
    $50, no one would ever spend thousands of dollars trying to keep one alive.

  56. ThomP says:

    Summary of my research

    My daughter might have melanine poisoning so far this is a summary of what I have found:

    — Sources of Melamine poisoning:
    + US fish farms may have been given meal laced with melamine – it does go through the food chain if the time of death was not significantly separate from intake. Eat fish and you might have gotten it.

    + Contaminated Protein powder
    eMaxHealth.com - Health Care News Articles (Guest)
    … protein concentrate supplied by Wilbur-Ellis that possibly contained melamine contamination. NIH Study Tracks Brain Development In Some 500 Children …
    www.emaxhealth.com/ - 31k -

    — What happens to melamine as it breaks down
    + the degradation pathway of melamine involves the conversion of melamine to ammeline and eventually cyanuric acid.

    — Symptoms of poisoning:
    + ACUTE to MODERATE TOXICITY VIA ORAL ROUTE.
    + MAY CAUSE REVERSIBLE OR IRREVERSIBLE CHANGES TO EXPOSED TISSUE, NOT PERMANENT INJURY OR DEATH; CAN CAUSE CONSIDERABLE DISCOMFORT.
    [Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 5th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold, 1979., p. 791]**PEER REVIEWED**

    + SIGNS OF TOXICITY FOLLOWING LETHAL DOSES TO MICE INCLUDED:
    * LACRIMATION (tearing),
    * DYSPNEA (shortness of breath/perceived difficulty breathing or pain on breathing.),
    * INTERMITTENT TREMORS, AND
    * COMA PRECEDING DEATH.
    * VASODILATION (Widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of the muscular wall of the vessels. ) IN TAIL AND EARS AND
    * PARALYSIS OF FOREQUARTERS WAS ALSO OBSERVED.
    [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 2771]**PEER REVIEWED**

    + Bladder stones - a hard crystalline solid was found in the urinary bladder — DIMELAMINE-MONOPHOSPHATE CRYSTALS — Bladder stones were observed in both male and female. Urinary bladder stones were not observed in treated or control female rats, but among male rats the incidence increased in a dose-related manner from the lowest-dose group (2/10) to the 12000 mg/kg level (9/9).
    + Hyperplasia (causing an organ to increase in size) of the bladder was noted in male rats …, but in none of the female rats.
    + piloerection (Erection of the hair of the skin),
    + lethargy,
    + bloody urine spots in the cage and on the pelage of animals, and + chromodacryorrhea (so-called “bloody tears”).
    + DIURESIS

    MELAMINE
    CASRN: 108-78-1
    For other data, click on the Table of Contents

    Human Health Effects:

    Evidence for Carcinogenicity:
    Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of melamine. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of melamine under conditions in which it produces bladder calculi. Overall evaluation: In making the overall evaluation, the Working Group noted that a non-DNA reactive mechanism by which melamine produced urinary bladder tumors in male rats occurred only under conditions in which calculi were produced. Melamine is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
    [IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. 73 336 (1999)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Human Toxicity Excerpts:
    HUMAN SUBJECTS WERE GIVEN PATCH TESTS WITH MELAMINE. NO EVIDENCE OF EITHER PRIMARY IRRITATION OR SENSITIZATION WAS FOUND.
    [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 2772]**PEER REVIEWED**

    DERMATITIS HAS BEEN REPORTED FROM MFR OF MELAMINE FORMALDEHYDE RESINS & GLUES. IT IS PROBABLE THAT THESE CASES WERE CHIEFLY DUE TO FORMALDEHYDE OR INTERMEDIATE REACTION PRODUCTS OF FORMALDEHYDE & MELAMINE.
    [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 2772]**PEER REVIEWED**

    SUMMARY TOXICITY STATEMENT: ACUTE… MODERATE VIA ORAL ROUTE. MODERATE= MAY CAUSE REVERSIBLE OR IRREVERSIBLE CHANGES TO EXPOSED TISSUE, NOT PERMANENT INJURY OR DEATH; CAN CAUSE CONSIDERABLE DISCOMFORT.
    [Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 5th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold, 1979., p. 791]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Probable Routes of Human Exposure:
    MELAMINE ITSELF DOES NOT SEEM TO BE IMPORTANT INDUSTRIAL HAZARD EXCEPT IF DECOMP BY HEAT. …SKIN SHOULD BE KEPT FREE FROM UNREACTED RESINS…
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Volumes I and II. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971., p. 852]**PEER REVIEWED**

    NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 21999 workers (2290 of these are female) are potentially exposed to melamine in the US(1). Occupational exposure may occur through dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where melamine is produced or used(SRC).
    [(1) NIOSH; National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Emergency Medical Treatment:

    Emergency Medical Treatment:
    EMT Copyright Disclaimer:
    Portions of the POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) database have been provided here for general reference. THE COMPLETE POISINDEX(R) DATABASE OR MEDITEXT(R) DATABASE SHOULD BE CONSULTED FOR ASSISTANCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC CASES. The use of the POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) databases is at your sole risk. The POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) databases are provided “AS IS” and “as available” for use, without warranties of any kind, either expressed or implied. Micromedex makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, timeliness, usefulness or completeness of any of the information contained in the POISINDEX(R) and MEDITEXT(R) databases. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED. Micromedex does not assume any responsibility or risk for your use of the POISINDEX(R) or MEDITEXT(R) databases. Copyright 1974-2007 Thomson MICROMEDEX. All Rights Reserved. Any duplication, replication, “downloading,” sale, redistribution or other use for commercial purposes is a violation of Micromedex’ rights and is strictly prohibited.
    The following Overview, *** GENERAL OR UNKNOWN CHEMICAL ***, is relevant for this HSDB record chemical.
    Life Support:
    o This overview assumes that basic life support measures have been instituted.
    Clinical Effects:

    April 30, 2007
    Melamine in big demand in China as a feed additive

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    By Niu Shuping and Lucy Hornby
    BEIJING (Reuters) - Melamine is so popular as a protein lookalike feed additive that at least one Chinese manufacturer is believed to have torn down buildings to get to leftover scraps, industry officials said on Monday.
    Melamine, used in making plastic and fertilizers, was blamed for killing pets in the United States and South America last month after it was found in wheat gluten and rice protein exported from China for use in pet food.
    More than 100 brands of pet food were recalled, triggering a round of finger-pointing among pet food suppliers in the U.S. China last week said it would ban melamine-tainted protein products from export and from domestic markets.
    Melamine scrap is believed to be commonly mixed in animal feed in China to artificially boost the protein level, especially in soymeal, tricking feedlots and farmers into paying more for feed for chickens and pigs.
    “The chemical plant next to us used the melamine scrap as waste for landfill and built houses on it. Then they tore down the buildings to get the scrap once the price rose,” said a manager with Tai’an Yongfeng Feedmill Co. Ltd in the coastal province of Shandong.
    “It is a very popular business here. I know people have been mixing this since 1991.”
    CUTTING CORNERS
    Shandong is the centre of China’s poultry industry, which is undergoing an industrial revolution as a wealthier population
    demands more meat and poultry.
    The industry has switched away from farmers raising a few chickens in backyards for sale in covered markets, to packed henhouses of thousands of birds that are slaughtered for national distribution.
    Thin margins mean the temptation to cut corners is strong, especially for middlemen selling soymeal in bulk to small feedlots.
    “For every percent of protein you gain, you can make 55 yuan. So if you can turn 38 percent protein soymeal into 43 percent meal, you can make more than 200 yuan per tonne,” said the manager.
    “Feed mills usually have poor equipment and they cannot detect the chemical through tests, not even the big mills.”
    “Fake” soymeal products were widely sold in Hebei and Shandong provinces, the manager said.
    “I never heard of this stuff. But in general, chemical products shouldn’t be put in animal feed, that’s very dangerous,” said Xie Hong, executive vice president of Sichuan Southhope Industry Co., China’s biggest feed producer and controlling stakeholder in Liuhe Group, the country’s largest poultry producer based in Shandong.
    Beijing has issued no regulations to ban the use of the chemical in feed, said a China Feed Industry Association official. He denied any knowledge of use of the additive in feed.
    But an official at the Shandong Mingshui Great Chemical Group, which produces urea for fertilizer, said all of its melamine scrap was sold to companies to boost the nitrogen content in their feed products.
    “They add very small amount of melamine scrap to the feed, which does not lead to mass deaths of animals. But a few here and there might react,” said the manager at the Shandong feedmill, who had not heard that the product had been linked to pet deaths overseas.
    “It might be another story for pets though.”


    Thomas Parkison
    -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-==
    “My Fellow citizens, we cannot escape history.” Abraham Lincoln

  57. ThomP says:

    Human Health Effects:

    Evidence for Carcinogenicity:
    Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of melamine. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of melamine under conditions in which it produces bladder calculi. Overall evaluation: In making the overall evaluation, the Working Group noted that a non-DNA reactive mechanism by which melamine produced urinary bladder tumors in male rats occurred only under conditions in which calculi were produced. Melamine is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
    [IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. 73 336 (1999)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Human Toxicity Excerpts:
    HUMAN SUBJECTS WERE GIVEN PATCH TESTS WITH MELAMINE. NO EVIDENCE OF EITHER PRIMARY IRRITATION OR SENSITIZATION WAS FOUND.
    [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 2772]**PEER REVIEWED**

    DERMATITIS HAS BEEN REPORTED FROM MFR OF MELAMINE FORMALDEHYDE RESINS & GLUES. IT IS PROBABLE THAT THESE CASES WERE CHIEFLY DUE TO FORMALDEHYDE OR INTERMEDIATE REACTION PRODUCTS OF FORMALDEHYDE & MELAMINE.
    [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 2772]**PEER REVIEWED**

    SUMMARY TOXICITY STATEMENT: ACUTE… MODERATE VIA ORAL ROUTE. MODERATE= MAY CAUSE REVERSIBLE OR IRREVERSIBLE CHANGES TO EXPOSED TISSUE, NOT PERMANENT INJURY OR DEATH; CAN CAUSE CONSIDERABLE DISCOMFORT.
    [Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 5th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold, 1979., p. 791]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Probable Routes of Human Exposure:
    MELAMINE ITSELF DOES NOT SEEM TO BE IMPORTANT INDUSTRIAL HAZARD EXCEPT IF DECOMP BY HEAT. …SKIN SHOULD BE KEPT FREE FROM UNREACTED RESINS…
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Volumes I and II. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971., p. 852]**PEER REVIEWED**

    NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 21999 workers (2290 of these are female) are potentially exposed to melamine in the US(1). Occupational exposure may occur through dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where melamine is produced or used(SRC).
    [(1) NIOSH; National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

  58. melamine dish warning us says:

    […] ethylene … “The chemical plant next to us used the melamine scrap as waste for landfill and …http://www.itchmo.com/avma-posts-melamine-study-on-sheep-in-1966-685Mugs productsProven to hold a baby’s fascination is another baby - so these sets melamine bowl, […]


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