AVMA Posts Melamine Study on Sheep in 1966

Melamine caused severe illness and death in sheep in this South African study. It’s safe to say that further testing is needed to determine how small amounts over time will affect pets and people alike.

With 10 g daily one sheep did not die but 2 did so after 16 and 31 days. The 2 sheep which died lost appetite and stopped urinating 3 days before death and urea and creatinine in blood then increased sharply. There were crystals in the kidneys and severe oedema of the lungs.

NOTE: South Africa’s pet food association is recommending the removal of all Chinese ingredients.

(Thanks Marilyn)

58 Responses to “AVMA Posts Melamine Study on Sheep in 1966”

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  1. Debbie4747 says:

    Ok, let me get this thread going here!…Please note the source:

    Clark, R. 1966. Melamine crystalluria in sheep. Journal South African Veterinary Medical Assoc., 1966, Vol. 37, pp. 349-351. CAB Record Number: 19671407708

    Please note the date was 1966. They’ve known what harm this crap can cause since then. I don’t get it, I really just don’t get it..now my head’s about to explode.

  2. Helen says:

    So let me see if I understand correctly:
    Melamine is lethal to cats, dogs, pigs, and sheep, but it is ok for humans to snack on daily. Hmmm. Nope, I don’t buy it. I say it is lethal to humans. FDA: TEST THE FOOD!!!!!!!

  3. Marilyn says:

    Notice that this study was published in the Journal *South African* Veterinary Medical Association.

    The South African government immediately blocked shipments of this junk when it was found to be contaminated with melamine. Coincidence??

    If any of you feel like writing letters, please go the forum titled Please Read This - A Call to Action. We have lots of addresses posted there for contacts within the Veterinary Community, here in the U.S. and Worldwide. Notice that the President of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association is from South Africa. The President of the World Veterinary Association is in Texas.

    This issue not only affects us here in the states, it is a global issue, so let’s go global too!

  4. Debbie4747 says:

    I forgot to mention…1966 that study was done…guess us hippies weren’t the only ones “dropping acid.”

  5. Eric says:

    With every passing moment this country and our government seems to trudge a little bit deeper into Hell.

  6. JLR says:

    Is anyone out there aware of any reports of severe hemorrhaging (I am sure I did not spell that correctly) related to any of these deaths in felines?

  7. 4lgdfriend says:

    wondering how much is 10 g daily compared to amount found at 6% ?

  8. 4lgdfriend says:

    my cat is sick again. trying to rule out other things…….but it’s suspicious since it began w nutro’s gd cglutmeal. so, fda$$e$, no longterm effects?

  9. Anonymous says:

    We the people have been skipping happily along like blind lemmings for years. There was a time when “imported” actually mean’t it was BETTER than US made. Our country of consumers long ago quit caring how the food was made as long as it was the cheapest on the block. As a country WE set ourselves up for a fall when we counted on the governing agencies to take care of us. Look where we are now. The FDA is actually the regulating agency to which all of the manufacuring companies have to
    listen to. The corruption is obvious, and most people have had the idea of this all along, but now it’s slapping us in the face. Now What?

  10. Anonymous says:

    By the way, has anyone read the back of many common purchases from ziploc bags to plasticware? Made in China.

  11. susanUnPC says:

    “NOTE: South Africa’s pet food association is recommending the removal of all Chinese ingredients.”

    I clicked on this link, and found the story very interesting — it’s great to see a no-baloney response from industry. No evasion, no denials. No hiding behind the skirts of the FDA. Just “we won’t buy that stuff anymore.” And they’ll compensate consumers. WTG, South African businesses.

  12. Marilyn says:

    And if South Africa can do it, why can’t we????

  13. susanUnPC says:

    So much for the bewilderment among toxicologists who can’t understand why melamine would hurt animals.

  14. susanUnPC says:

    (And, I meant to add, so much for the toxicologists who are maintaining that cyanuric acid is what is necessary to combine with melamine to kill animals. Now we know that melamine *alone* can kill.)

    Thanks, Marilyn, for sharing this with Itchmo, and us.

  15. Marilyn says:

    SusanUnPc, what was that link? I’d like to read the whole article. Thanks.

  16. Carol says:

    Has anyone emailed this story to the FDA??? It seems the people here at Itchmo are better investigators than they are–of course, we all want to find the answers to this nightmare–and have not minimized it

  17. Marilyn says:

    Well, and they keep talking about the only testing having been done on rats…

  18. Anonymous says:

    You want vitamins or taurine in your pet food, you’re getting stuff from China. We’ve sold our economy to the lowest bidder, and now we’re paying the price. It’s sickening, now it is literally sickening.

  19. Marilyn says:

    I don’t want to email it to their general email address because I think it would just get lost. I have snail mail addresses, but I don’t have any email addresses for the top people at the FDA. Does anyone have those?

  20. xyz says:

    My only guess is because its rampant. Otherwise we’d see a lot more companies shouting about how safe and free of contaminants their products are- because they have quality control and USE IT. The again, the FDA felt the need to remind them they’re supposed to take care of food safety. Like that’s not something of a hint.

    Another question- where are the organic growers associations and organizations? Where are the big consumer advocates? Where’s AARP?

    This stopped being about pet food awhile back. Maybe they haven’t noticed.

  21. straybaby says:

    does anyone know how long they have been putting the c-acid in feed? it sounds like the Melamine in the sheep test was reacting the same way it does in the test tube causing crystals when introduced with the c-acid.

    otherwise, there’s an unsettling question of why the Melamine alone wasn’t forming crystals in the current lab testing . . . .

  22. purringfur says:

    susanUnPC Says:

    May 9th, 2007 at 5:19 pm
    (And, I meant to add, so much for the toxicologists who are maintaining that cyanuric acid is what is necessary to combine with melamine to kill animals. Now we know that melamine *alone* can kill.)
    Susan, you beat me to it. Thank you, AVMA for publishing the study abstract on your site.

    And, FDA:



    And, by the way, the average adult male sheep weighs 150 - 200 pounds.

    OUR JOB? FORWARD THE SHEEP STUDY ABSTRACT TO THE MEDIA and POLITICIANS. Some heads should roll for the cover-up to the public.

    And now it’s time to give the other toxic substances their due time in front of the media: CYANURIC ACID, AMILORINE, & AMILORIDE, the words that have largely been avoided.

  23. Marilyn says:

    XYZ, all good questions. ConsumerAffairs.com has had some of the best coverage of this from the very beginning. But, for the most part, the powers that be have managed to keep this pretty low-key.

  24. anna says:

    I agree that melamine ALONE can cause kidney crystals, but one has to ask why these interlocked CEO ghouls decided to toss CYANURIC ACID into the mix. They wouldn’t have done that if there wasn’t a reason.
    CYANURIC acid is used to stabilized chlorinated water. I think they’re getting ready to punt off the next discovery that extremely contaminated water has been used to manufacture said pet food, water that contained chlorine and cyanuric acid.

    The FDA, like FEMA was NEVER set up to protect the people, it was set up to protect the powerbase and advance the Club of Rome agenda of an evil elite. I would start regarding the FDA as a sort of special arm of a latter-day Gestapo on steroids - then it makes sense why they don’t put forward a MORALLY SANE response, like banning imports from Bush-Shanghai (aka China).

    This is a warning to humans to get off the CORPORATE FOOD GRID now. Start by creating local marketing interfaces with your local farmers. Go into your local State Capitols, a dozen at a time, and demand bills to start planting wheat and corn or whatever grows by you. It is a money making opportunity and one that is win win win for the people. They’ll kill some of you for doing it, but that’ll happen anyway if we the people keep eating their Corporate Kibble.

  25. straybaby says:

    “And, by the way, the average adult male sheep weighs 150 - 200 pounds.”

    *steps on scale, looks. Yup, just what I thought. 105lbs*

    dogs that weigh more than I do have died . . .

  26. Gayle says:

    Here is a study which found that fish oil protected against the cancer-causing effects of melamine in rats. Might be worth trying in our pets as long as we don’t use fish oil from melamine-fed fish.

  27. Katie says:

    And it was reported early on that it killed a 160 lb Great Dane!


  28. Garyn says:

    I am not anything close to resembling a mathematician, metric converter or chemist so if I am wrong here, please let me know.

    If a standard size bag of wheat gluten (like the one supplied to Chem Nutra) is 25kg (25,000gms) and has 75% protein, it would have 18,750 grams of protein.

    If a standard size bag of wheat flour at the same weight (25kg) has only 14% protein, would it not follow that to bring it up to the 75% (to pull off the fake count) one would have to add 60% of fake protein (nitrogen rich melamine). If so wouldn’t that be 15,000 grams of melamine in one bag to bring it to a measured 75% protein count. I am assuming nitrogen count in melamine is used gram for gram to measure protein. They may have added even more melamine to bring the count above 75% to get a really good price. We don’t know.

    So each Kg out of the 25kg of the one bag of “wheat gluten” (really wheat flour) would contain 140 grams real protein and 600grams melamine.

    So if 110grams =1 cup, there would be 66 grams melamine in one cup of the flour. ½ cup would have 33 grams melamine. ¼ cup would have 16.5 grams melamine.

    How much non meat protein is in a can of dog or cat food? A can of cat food has approximately 12oz protein, whereas dog food has 8grams. So cats were getting more melamine than dogs. If we say that some brands of cat food had 1 gram of real meat protein, it would need 11 grams of vegetable protein to get to the 12 grams. So, if that was supplied by “wheat gluten”, the can would have 6.6grams of melamine (60%)

    Two sheep died after eating just 10grams of melamine per day after 16 and 31 days. Sheep fed 7gms a day mixed with meal didn’t die.

    Cats and dogs are much smaller than sheep. So are babies. If this stuff went directly into the human food supply (baby food, protein bars etc.) we are in such huge trouble. And if sheep died after 16 and 31 days on 10 grams, what do we think is going on inside a small chicken and even smaller fish who ate this wheat flour even with the stupid dilution factor.

    How’s my math?

  29. straybaby says:

    well according to the *formula* posted on the trade site, i think you can add less Melamine Compound becuase it packs a stronger protein punch than regular protein *if* i understand correctly.


  30. Gary says:

    The great U.S.A. has gone to the corrupt and criminals where killing is perfectly fine as long as they make money.

  31. Leslie k says:

    JLR-My brothers cat died in earl Dec 2006. No necropsy it was before the recalls. He was on a business trip for 4 days & a friend was feeding Lucifer for him. Always cuts & gravy wet & Pur dry for indoor cats. Doug got home Fri nite at 10 & Lucifer was acting a little off. He decided to wait til Sat am so he could see regular vet & Lucifer woke him about 2 am crying in pain. He didn’t make it to the emergency vet before Lucifer died . Severe bleeding ! If you have hemoraging go right away!

  32. Sylvia says:

    Wish I could KICK MYSELF IN THE REAR! I was eating Chinese farm-raised Tilapia fish!!! I don’t even buy farm-raised salmon because I know about the impurities in that. Since you don’t know NUTT’N about what goes on in China, being an optimist, I told myself that the Chinese probably have higher standards than we do. Ha, ha…I sure wish that melamine had a nasty taste or odor to give it away. The Tilapia was real tasty, thank you very much.

  33. straybaby says:

    Leslie k Says:

    I’d like to add, if you have a male cat that starts showing ANY sign of distress do NOT wait until the next morning or the next hour. they may be blocking on a Mela-Crystal. regular blockages only give you about 12-18 hrs before they become deadly.

    I have dealt with both ARF and stones in cats. BOTH need the earliest possible treatment. no messing around or waiting to see/etc.

  34. Susan says:

    That study was horrifying. In cats the BUN (or Urea as the study called it) level should be roughly from 3 to 25 or 30. If it’s over that they are headed to kidney failure. 50 is very bad. The highest I ever saw was in the 200’s. The vet said the cat was blocked with “struvite” crystals. I’m wondering because there is such an increase in these blockages over the past couple of years, if it’s Melamine. Vets don’t usually send bladder stones out for analysis and struvite crystals can start to form when a container of urine sits for as little as an hour. The study said the sheep BUN was over 300. How can they say Melamine studies don’t do any damage? I’d like to see the details of the rat study

  35. straybaby says:

    ” I’d like to see the details of the rat study”

    so would I, but seeing as they went on to test fish oil in regards to the Melamine reaction in their bodies . . . . ugh!

  36. Garyn says:

    Straybaby, yeah, I think you are right..assuming the b*&^$%d is being honest. But still it isn’t that far off from 1:1 if you take the low number. That is still a lot of melamine.

    “Levels for the melamine were as high as 6.6% of the wheat gluten, FDA’s Sundlof says.”

    Isn’t that interesting that he repeated that exact 6.6 number that I calculated to be in each can of cat food as grams (not percentages).

  37. Dogmom says:

    Oh my gosh! CBS news on now is broadcasting the fact that our high school students are being talk to speak Chinese!

  38. straybaby says:

    this is interesting if I read it right:

    “1. For poultry feed: adding 2. 0% is capable of increasing protein by 3. 2% -6. 0% .
    2. For cattle / sheep / pig / fish / shrimp feed: adding 3. 0% is capable of increasing protein by 4. 8% -9. 0% .
    3. For raw materials such as Fish Meal, Meat and Bone Meal, Bean Meal, Rice Protein Meal and other protein feed ingredients: adding 1kg of ESB Protein Powder per hundred kilos can improve protein by 1. 6% -3. 0% . ”

    fish meal and meat/bone meal have the chance for a double whammy. you feed the jacked feed, and then take those animals and make meal out of them, which you also jack with this crap . . .

    if anyone tells me my CA wines have Chinese ingredients in them, i swear my head will REALLY explode. it’s the only thing keeping my blood pressure down . . . along with walking the dog ;)

  39. Patty L says:

    Using several links, posted here and in Petconnection.com, I’ve seen the dark yellow crystals formed in the urine and kidney tissues and tubules of sick or dead cats and dogs and also saw the infrared spectra which show a perfect match between those crystals and those formed by the insoluble compound that results from mixing melamine and cyanuric acid. So I wonder if the sheep in that 1966 report died because of the metabolic formation of cyanuric acid from the melamine. (Though that idea is being disregarded now, and the theory that cyanuric acid was added to the melamine separately as a scam is popular in the last couple days.)

  40. straybaby says:

    “Levels for the melamine were as high as 6.6% of the wheat gluten, FDA’s Sundlof says.”

    but now that we know it was flour, does that change the percentage? is this based on what they *thought* the protein level of the ingredient was before the spike or the actual raw ingredient?

  41. Anonymous says:

    Marilyn - here are e-addys for FDA ’suits’ & others. I found this on Pet Connection blog of 5/9/07 for “Unusual Spikes …”, in: Comment by Joyce — May 9, 2007 @ 12:33 pm

    Andrew C. von Eschenbach
    Dr. Stephen Sundlof
    Bernadette Dunham
    Daniel McChesney
    David Acheson
    Julie Zawisza
    Captain David Elder
    Michael Rogers

    Mike Johanns
    Kenneth Petersen

    Lisa Willenda Picard
    Janice Carpenter
    Diane Van

    Pet Food Institute
    Duane Ekedahl FAX (202) 367-2120

    Eric Nelson Fax: 608-224-4656

    Pres. Bush FAX: 202-456-2461

  42. susanUnPC says:

    Marilyn, the story on the S.A. pet food businesses is linked in Itchmo’s story, in his “NOTE” item at the end.
    “I’d like to add, if you have a male cat that starts showing ANY sign of distress do NOT wait until the next morning or the next hour …”

    Great advice. The ASPCA goes even further in telling people that if their cats have eaten any of the recalled food — even if the cats *aren’t showing symptoms* — to immediately take the cat to the vet for testing. They think that when the cat begins showing symptoms, it may be too late.

  43. love gs dogs says:

    And the beat goes on..and on and on…

    Some days I think all of the wonderful comments and wisdoms and witicisms on this site are what keeps me sane..I was already depressed enough since Nov 2000 about the direction our government was going but lately, it is hard to imagine what it will take to dig out of this mess…

    I have a difficult time keeping up with all of the places to go on Itchmo and wondered if anyone else was keeping track of “teric” who sent away food from Kumpi and Canidae to be tested and thought addl results besides melamine would be back on Monday? anyone know if or where this information was posted?

  44. Mandy says:

    It’s going to be found out it was fed to the beef cattle next. Just you wait.

    Okay so the more you weigh the less chance you’ll get poisoned? Did I hear that right? So are you giving us an excuse to get fat?! That Great Dane who died weighs more than I do! I am a short person with only a medium bone structure. If I get TOO fat you’d have to roll me out the door! Thanks a lot!

    Though come to think of it, maybe this is why people are having trouble losing weight to begin with. How do you lose weight when what you’re eating shouldn’t be in the food?!

    Not only that but I have a lot of health problems and having to eat bad food? NOT HELPING!

    *Sings* Row, row, row, your boat, gently down the stream, throw FDA overboard and listen to them scream! AHHHHHHHHHH!

    Sorry I couldn’t resist.

  45. Nina says:

    OK…this may be the next thing coming.

    Just so you know, I grew up in Hong Kong (originally from Europe) and we ate “farm” chickens from the local wet market when I was a kid. After a few years we all started gaining weight (I got obese). We found out…much later…that it was because chickens were fed growth hormones. I’ve had life-long issues with weight and hormones since my childhood because of this, so I know about this issue PERSONALLY.

    U.S. proposal to allow chicken imports from China raises health concerns
    By Diedtra Henderson The Boston GlobePublished: May 9, 2007

    WASHINGTON: In China, some farmers try to maximize the output from their small plots by flooding produce with unapproved pesticides, pumping livestock with antibiotics banned in other countries and using human feces as fertilizer to increase soil productivity.

    But the questionable practices do not end there: Chicken pens are frequently suspended over ponds where seafood is raised, recycling chicken waste as a food source for seafood, according to a leading food safety expert who served as adviser to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    Suspect Chinese agricultural practices could soon affect consumers in the United States. Government authorities are working on a proposal to allow chickens raised, slaughtered, and cooked in China to be sold in the United States, and under current regulations, store labels do not have to indicate the origin of the poultry.

    According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, China’s top agricultural export goal is opening the U.S. market to its cooked chickens.

    Representative Rosa DeLauro, a Democrat of Connecticut who is fighting the change, says that China does not deserve entry to the coveted, closed poultry marke

  46. straybaby says:

    lol!~ Nina, I saw that the other night and just cracked up. It fits right in to the absurd landscape we find ourselves in . . .

    I will say what i saw was just a blurb on cable, not quite as detailed as what you posted . . . OY!

  47. Mandy says:

    You know Nina, though I am not seriously fat, I AM overweight for my height. Guess what one of my favorite foods used to be? CHICKEN! All I can say at this point is…


  48. Cathy says:

    Eric Says:

    May 9th, 2007 at 4:50 pm
    With every passing moment this country and our government seems to trudge a little bit deeper into Hell.

    Our country and government has already been in hell for quite a while now ;(

  49. Cathy says:

    Dogmom Says:

    May 9th, 2007 at 6:52 pm
    Oh my gosh! CBS news on now is broadcasting the fact that our high school students are being talk to speak Chinese!

    Nothing surprises me any more. Spanish is already becoming the language of the US, maybe Chinese will be next in line with English 3rd.

  50. purringfur says:

    Nina says: According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, China’s top agricultural export goal is opening the U.S. market to its cooked chickens.

    Let your government officials know:


    FOR THAT MATTER, WE DON’T EVEN WANT U.S. CHICKENS, at least not commercially-produced contaminated ones.

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